In the beginning, it took a very specialized pitch to connect Android and Google.

At first, it took a really specialised pitch to attach Android and Google.

Dan Sandler

Androids: The workforce that constructed the Android working system is a brand new e-book from longtime Android engineer Chet Haase. Haase has been on the Android workforce since 2010, and he interviewed dozens of Googlers for this e-book, which provides a behind-the-scenes take a look at early Android improvement. With Haase’s permission, we’re giving readers a take a look at chapters 4 and 5 of the e-book, “The Pitch,” and “The Acquisition.” That portion covers the impartial Android Inc.’s seek for enterprise capital and the workforce’s eventual assembly with Google. The e-book is out this weekend in eBook and paperback (Amazon, Google Play), and Haase is donating proceeds to Black Ladies Code and Ladies Who Code.

By mid-2005, Android was acquired and the long run appeared shiny. However simply six months earlier, issues weren’t fairly as rosy. In January of that yr, the startup was determined for money and their predominant job was the similar as for many startups: getting funding. After the pivot from a digicam OS to an open supply cellphone platform, they nonetheless had the daunting job of truly constructing a product, which meant they’d want more cash to rent a big sufficient workforce to do the work.

The original demo, written by Brian Swetland and Chris White and later enhanced by Fadden, showing a home screen and several apps (most of which were not implemented). It’s a far cry from a modern Android home screen.

The unique demo, written by Brian Swetland and Chris White and later enhanced by Fadden, exhibiting a house display and a number of other apps (most of which weren’t applied). It’s a far cry from a contemporary Android house display.

Chet Haase

So the corporate targeted on three issues. First, they wanted a demo to indicate what was attainable. Subsequent, they wanted to articulate their imaginative and prescient and create a pitch deck to assist clarify that imaginative and prescient. Lastly, they wanted to take the demo and the slide deck on the highway to pitch their story to potential buyers.

Demo time

The primary job for Andy McFadden (identified to the workforce as “Fadden”) when he joined was solidifying the demo, a prototype cellphone system that Brian Swetland and Chris White had been engaged on. It wasn’t truly useful (for instance, it confirmed a inventory ticker on the house display which used a set of hard-coded symbols and rancid information). However the demo represented a imaginative and prescient of what the product could possibly be when it was truly applied.

One of many apps that Fadden added to the demo was a easy calendar software. This early demo challenge would come again to hang-out him. After many intervening years of engaged on issues all through the Android platform, he ended up serving to out with the Android Calendar app. Time waits for no man… however calendar apps do.

The cell alternative

Because the workforce honed their imaginative and prescient, they created a slide deck to elucidate it. These slides painted an image of the alternatives that they noticed for Android within the market, in addition to an image of how Android would make cash for the buyers.

The slide deck in March of 2005 had fifteen slides, which was sufficient to seize the eye of VCs in addition to Google.

The pitch deck acquired attention-grabbing by the second slide, which in contrast PC and cellphone markets. In 2004, there have been 178 million shipments of PCs worldwide. Throughout the identical interval, there have been 675 million telephones shipped; almost 4 occasions as many items as PCs, however with processors and reminiscence that have been as succesful as PCs have been in 1998.

This potential in cell {hardware} was a degree that Dianne Hackborn, then at PalmSource and ultimately on the Android workforce, was additionally desirous about. The cell trade was able to pop as a result of there was lastly sufficient energy for there to be an actual, succesful computing platform: Dianne mentioned, “You could possibly see the writing on the wall. The {hardware} was getting extra highly effective, and the market was already greater than PCs.”

The presentation additionally recognized the issue of the rising value of cell software program. The price of {hardware} was happening, however that of software program was not, making it a bigger and bigger proportion of the per-handset value. However handset producers weren’t consultants in software program platform improvement and didn’t have the ability set or curiosity in offering the rising capabilities required to distinguish their software program from that of their opponents.

An open alternative

The second main level within the pitch deck was that there was a niche, and a possibility, out there for an open platform. That’s, Android can be an working system that was free and accessible to producers by open supply. Firms would have the ability to use and distribute this OS on their very own telephones, with out being beholden to a software program supplier and with out having to construct it themselves. This open method was one thing that was merely not accessible at the moment.

Microsoft supplied a proprietary OS that producers may license after which port to their {hardware}. Symbian was primarily utilized by Nokia, with some uptake from Sony and Motorola. RIM had its personal platform, which it used just for its personal BlackBerry units. However there was no different on the market for producers that wished a succesful smartphone with out both constructing their very own OS, placing important effort into customizing an present one, and/or paying a excessive licensing price.

Slide 7 diagrammed the potential for an open platform, providing something that was otherwise not available at that time.
Enlarge / Slide 7 diagrammed the potential for an open platform, offering one thing that was in any other case not accessible at the moment.

Chet Haase

Much more problematic, the programs that have been accessible failed to offer an ecosystem for functions. Symbian supplied among the core infrastructure for an working system, however the UI layer was left as an train for the producer, leading to an software mannequin for telephones the place apps written for one taste of Symbian wouldn’t essentially run on another variation, even on telephones from the identical producer.

The Java programming language, identified within the server and desktop PC world as “write as soon as, run wherever,” may presumably have supplied this type of cross-device software functionality, however Java ME fell far wanting this within the cell house. Whereas it did present a minimum of the identical language throughout units (a lot as Symbian supplied the identical language of C++ for all of its implementations), Java ME addressed the big variety of type components and architectures in telephones by offering completely different variations of the platform, referred to as profiles. These profiles had completely different capabilities, so builders wanted to alter their functions to run on completely different units, and infrequently that method failed when capabilities have been drastically completely different throughout units.

Linux to the rescue!… Virtually. Texas Devices (TI) supplied an open platform based mostly on the Linux OS kernel. All producers wanted was Linux itself, reference {hardware} from TI, after which an enormous host of different modules that producers needed to purchase, license, construct or in any other case provide to create their very own machine. As Brian Swetland put it, “You could possibly use TI’s OMAP chips to construct a Linux cellphone. So that you wanted TI’s OMAP after which forty parts from forty completely different distributors of middleware. You set all these collectively and also you built-in all of them and you then’d have a Linux cellphone. And that was simply absurd.”

TI provided a Linux-based solution, but many of the details of drivers and other components were left as an exercise to the manufacturer, which wasn’t a compelling option.
Enlarge / TI supplied a Linux-based resolution, however lots of the particulars of drivers and different parts have been left as an train to the producer, which wasn’t a compelling possibility.

Chet Haase

Android wished to offer the world’s first full open handset platform resolution. It will be constructed on Linux, like TI’s providing, however would additionally present the entire essential items in order that producers would have just one system to undertake with a purpose to construct and ship their units. Android would additionally present a single programming mannequin to software builders, in order that their apps would work the identical throughout all units on which the platform ran. By having a single platform that labored throughout all units utilizing it, Android would simplify telephones for each producers and builders.

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